2019年10月21日星期一

2019.10.21伪最高法、最高检、公安部、司法部《关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见》


最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 公安部 司法部关于印发《关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见》的通知
  各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院、人民检察院、公安厅(局)、司法厅(局),解放军军事法院、军事检察院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院、新疆生产建设兵团人民检察院、公安局、司法局:
  为认真贯彻落实中央开展扫黑除恶专项斗争的部署要求,正确理解和适用最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题的指导意见》,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部研究制定了《关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见》。现印发给你们,请认真贯彻执行。
  最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 公安部 司法部
  2019年7月23日
  最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 公安部 司法部关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见
为认真贯彻中央关于开展扫黑除恶专项斗争的部署要求,正确理解和适用最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题的指导意见》(法发〔2018〕1号,以下简称《指导意见》),根据刑法、刑事诉讼法、网络安全法及有关司法解释、规范性文件的规定,现对办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题提出以下意见:
  一、总体要求
  1. 各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关及司法行政机关应当统一执法思想、提高执法效能,坚持“打早打小”,坚决依法严厉惩处利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪,有效维护网络安全和经济、社会生活秩序。
  2. 各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关及司法行政机关应当正确运用法律,严格依法办案,坚持“打准打实”,认真贯彻落实宽严相济刑事政策,切实做到宽严有据、罚当其罪,实现政治效果、法律效果和社会效果的统一。
  3. 各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关及司法行政机关应当分工负责,互相配合、互相制约,切实加强与相关行政管理部门的协作,健全完善风险防控机制,积极营造线上线下社会综合治理新格局。
  二、依法严惩利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪
  4. 对通过发布、删除负面或虚假信息,发送侮辱性信息、图片,以及利用信息、电话骚扰等方式,威胁、要挟、恐吓、滋扰他人,实施黑恶势力违法犯罪的,应当准确认定,依法严惩。
  5. 利用信息网络威胁他人,强迫交易,情节严重的,依照刑法第二百二十六条的规定,以强迫交易罪定罪处罚。
  6. 利用信息网络威胁、要挟他人,索取公私财物,数额较大,或者多次实施上述行为的,依照刑法第二百七十四条的规定,以敲诈勒索罪定罪处罚。
  7. 利用信息网络辱骂、恐吓他人,情节恶劣,破坏社会秩序的,依照刑法第二百九十三条第一款第二项的规定,以寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚。
  编造虚假信息,或者明知是编造的虚假信息,在信息网络上散布,或者组织、指使人员在信息网络上散布,起哄闹事,造成公共秩序严重混乱的,依照刑法第二百九十三条第一款第四项的规定,以寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚。
  8. 侦办利用信息网络实施的强迫交易、敲诈勒索等非法敛财类案件,确因被害人人数众多等客观条件的限制,无法逐一收集被害人陈述的,可以结合已收集的被害人陈述,以及经查证属实的银行账户交易记录、第三方支付结算账户交易记录、通话记录、电子数据等证据,综合认定被害人人数以及涉案资金数额等。
  三、准确认定利用信息网络实施犯罪的黑恶势力
  9. 利用信息网络实施违法犯罪活动,符合刑法、《指导意见》以及最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理恶势力刑事案件若干问题的意见》等规定的恶势力、恶势力犯罪集团、黑社会性质组织特征和认定标准的,应当依法认定为恶势力、恶势力犯罪集团、黑社会性质组织。
  认定利用信息网络实施违法犯罪活动的黑社会性质组织时,应当依照刑法第二百九十四条第五款规定的“四个特征”进行综合审查判断,分析“四个特征”相互间的内在联系,根据在网络空间和现实社会中实施违法犯罪活动对公民人身、财产、民主权利和经济、社会生活秩序所造成的危害,准确评价,依法予以认定。
  10. 认定利用信息网络实施违法犯罪的黑恶势力组织特征,要从违法犯罪的起因、目的,以及组织、策划、指挥、参与人员是否相对固定,组织形成后是否持续进行犯罪活动、是否有明确的职责分工、行为规范、利益分配机制等方面综合判断。利用信息网络实施违法犯罪的黑恶势力组织成员之间一般通过即时通讯工具、通讯群组、电子邮件、网盘等信息网络方式联络,对部分组织成员通过信息网络方式联络实施黑恶势力违法犯罪活动,即使相互未见面、彼此不熟识,不影响对组织特征的认定。
  11. 利用信息网络有组织地通过实施违法犯罪活动或者其他手段获取一定数量的经济利益,用于违法犯罪活动或者支持该组织生存、发展的,应当认定为符合刑法第二百九十四条第五款第二项规定的黑社会性质组织经济特征。
  12. 通过线上线下相结合的方式,有组织地多次利用信息网络实施违法犯罪活动,侵犯不特定多人的人身权利、民主权利、财产权利,破坏经济秩序、社会秩序的,应当认定为符合刑法第二百九十四条第五款第三项规定的黑社会性质组织行为特征。单纯通过线上方式实施的违法犯罪活动,且不具有为非作恶、欺压残害群众特征的,一般不应作为黑社会性质组织行为特征的认定依据。
  13. 对利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪非法控制和影响的“一定区域或者行业”,应当结合危害行为发生地或者危害行业的相对集中程度,以及犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在网络空间和现实社会中的控制和影响程度综合判断。虽然危害行为发生地、危害的行业比较分散,但涉案犯罪组织利用信息网络多次实施强迫交易、寻衅滋事、敲诈勒索等违法犯罪活动,在网络空间和现实社会造成重大影响,严重破坏经济、社会生活秩序的,应当认定为“在一定区域或者行业内,形成非法控制或者重大影响”。
  四、利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪案件管辖
  14. 利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件管辖依照《关于办理黑社会性质组织犯罪案件若干问题的规定》和《关于办理网络犯罪案件适用刑事诉讼程序若干问题的意见》的有关规定确定,坚持以犯罪地管辖为主、被告人居住地管辖为辅的原则。
  15. 公安机关可以依法对利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪相关案件并案侦查或者指定下级公安机关管辖,并案侦查或者由上级公安机关指定管辖的公安机关应当全面调查收集能够证明黑恶势力犯罪事实的证据,各涉案地公安机关应当积极配合。并案侦查或者由上级公安机关指定管辖的案件,需要提请批准逮捕、移送审查起诉、提起公诉的,由立案侦查的公安机关所在地的人民检察院、人民法院受理。
  16. 人民检察院对于公安机关提请批准逮捕、移送审查起诉的利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件,人民法院对于已进入审判程序的利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件,被告人及其辩护人提出的管辖异议成立,或者办案单位发现没有管辖权的,受案人民检察院、人民法院经审查,可以依法报请与有管辖权的人民检察院、人民法院共同的上级人民检察院、人民法院指定管辖,不再自行移交。对于在审查批准逮捕阶段,上级检察机关已经指定管辖的案件,审查起诉工作由同一人民检察院受理。人民检察院、人民法院认为应当分案起诉、审理的,可以依法分案处理。
  17. 公安机关指定下级公安机关办理利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件的,应当同时抄送同级人民检察院、人民法院。人民检察院认为需要依法指定审判管辖的,应当协商同级人民法院办理指定管辖有关事宜。
  18.本意见自2019年10月21日起施行。

The following Opinions on several issues of handling criminal cases of unsing information networks to perpetrate crimes by underwold forces are based on the Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure Law, Cybersecurity Law,and other relevant judicial interpretations and normative documents and submitted so as to earnestly implement the deployment requirements of the CPC Central Committee on carrying out the Special Crackdown on Clearing Away Organized Crime and Eliminating Vice;and to correctly understand and apply the "Guiding Opinions on Several Issues in Handling Cases of Underworld Forces Crimes" (Fafa (2018) No.1) released by the Supreme People's Court, Supreme People's Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, and Ministry of Justice, hereinafter simply the "Guiding Opinions":
I. General Requirements
  1. All levels of people's court, people's procuratorate, public security organ, and judicial-administrative organ shall unify thinking on enforcement, increase the efficacy of enforcement, persist in striking early and combating even small offenses; lawfully and strictly punishing crimes by underworld forces that use the information networks, and effectively preserving network security and the order of economic and social life.
  2. All levels of people's court, people's procuratorate, public security organ, and judicial-administrative organ shall correctly utilize the law, handle cases strictly in accordance with law, persist in striking precisely and accurately, and earnestly implementing the criminal policy of blending leniency with severity so that there is a basis for leniency and severity, the punishment fits the crime, and political, legal, and social effects are united.
  3. All levels of people's court, people's procuratorate, public security organ, and judicial-administrative organs shall divide labor and responsibility, cooperate with each others' work, truly strengthen coordination with relevant administrative regulatory departments, complete and improve risk prevention and control mechanisms, and actively create new governance framework that combines online and offline society.
II. Strictly Punish the Use of Information Networks to Perpetrate Underworld Forces Crimes in Accordance with Law
  1. Where crimes by underworld forces are perpetrated by threatening, coercing, intimidating, or pestering others through means such as publishing or deleting negative or false information; sending insulting information or pictures; or using information or telephone harassment; it shall be correctly designated and strictly punished in accordance with law.
  2. Where information networks are used to threaten others or force transactions, and the circumstances are serious, it is to be convicted and sentenced as the crime of coercive business transactions in accordance with article 226 of the Criminal Law.
  3. Extorting public or private property by using information networks to threaten or coerce others, where the amounts are relatively large, or where the above conduct is committed several times, shall be convicted and punished as the crime of blackmail and extortion in accordance with article 274 of the Criminal Law.
  4. Use of information networks to berate or intimidate others, where the circumstances are repugnant and social order is undermined, shall be convicted and punished as the crime of provocation and causing disturbances ["picking quarrels"] in accordance with provisions of item 2 in paragraph 1 article 293 of the Criminal Law.
The dissemination of false information on information networks, which one has either invented or clearly knows to be fabricated information, or the organizing or inciting of others to disseminate it on information networks, creating an uproar and causing serious public disorder, is to be convicted and punished as the crime of 'provocation and causing disturbances' in accordance with item 4 in the first paragraph of article 293 of the Criminal Law.
  1. Where in the investigation and handling of illegal enrichment cases such as coercive business or blackmail it is impossible to individually collect each victim's statement due to objective limits such as having large numbers of victims, evidence such as already collected victim statements and verified bank account records, third-party payment and settlement account transaction records, call records, or electronic data may be summarized to determine the total number of victims or monetary amounts involved in the case.
III. Correctly Identify Underworld Forces Using Information Networks to Perpetrate Crimes
  1. Where the use of information networks to perpetrate illegal and criminal activities meets the characteristics and standards for designating malign forces, malign force crime gangs, or underworld criminal organizations, as provided for in the Criminal Law, "Guiding Opinions" and the "Opinions on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases by Underworld Forces" by the Supreme People's Court, Supreme People's Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, and Ministry of Justice; a designation shall be made for the malign forces, malign force crime gangs, or underworld criminal organization.
When designating underworld criminal organizations that use information networks to carry out illegal and criminal activities, a comprehensive review and judgment shall be conducted in accordance with the 'four characteristics' provided for in paragraph 5 of article 294 of the Criminal Law, analyzing the internal connections of the 'four characteristics' to correctly assess on the basis of the harm caused to citizens' persons and property, democratic rights, and the order of their economic and social lives through illegal and criminal conduct in cyberspace and real society, and make a designation in accordance with law.
  1. Designation of malign force organizations using the information networks to perpetrate violations and crimes should be by overall judgment of factors such as the motive and goals of the crime, as well as the whether the persons organizing, planning, directing, and participating are relatively fixed; whether the organization continues criminal activities after it is formed, and whether there are clear mechanisms for division of duties, conduct regulation, and splitting benefits.
  2. Where information networks are used in an organized manner to carry out illegal or criminal activities, or to obtain a definite amount of economic benefit through other means that is used for illegal or criminal activities or for the survival and development of that organization; it shall be found to meet the underworld criminal organization economic characteristic provided for in item 2 of paragraph 5 of Criminal Law article 294.
  3. Where online and offline methods are combined to use the information networks in an organized fashion several times to carry out illegal or criminal activities to violate the personal, democratic, or property rights of several specified persons; undermining economic or social order; it shall be found to meet underworld criminal organization behavioral characteristic provided for in item 3 of paragraph 5 of Criminal Law article 294. Where purely online methods are used to carry out illegal or criminal activities, but it lacks the characteristics of malice and oppressing the public, it should usually not be the basis for finding the underworld criminal organization behavioral characteristics.
  4. As for the "certain region or industry" that is illegally controlled or impacted by underworld forces' use of information networks to carry of crimes, make a comprehensive assessment the extent to which the threatened region or industry is relatively concentrated, and the extent of the criminal suspect or defendant's control or impact in cyberspace and real space. Even where the places where the places where the threatening conduct occurred or the threatened industries are quite spread out, where the criminal organization involved in the case uses the information networks to carry out several instances of illegal or criminal activity, such coerced transactions, provocation [picking quarrels] or blackmail, causing a substantial impact in cyberspace and real space, and seriously undermining the order of economic and social life; it shall be found to be "forming illegal control or major impact in a certain region or industry"
IV. Jurisdiction of Cases of Using Information Networks to Perpetrate underworld Forces Crimes
  1. Jurisdiction of cases of underworld forces' use of information networks to commit crimes is determined with reference to the "Provisions on Several Issues in the Handling of Underworld Criminal Organization Crimes", the "Opinions on Several Issues Regarding the Application of Criminal Procedure in Cases of Online Crimes", and other relevant provisions, and adhering to the principle of primarily having jurisdiction at the site of the crime, with the residence of the defendant as a supplement.
  2. Public security organs may lawfully combine investigation of cases of underworld forces using the information networks to carry out crimes, or designate a lower level public security organ for jurisdiction, and the public security organ combining cases for investigation or that was designated to take jurisdiction by a higher-level public security organ shall comprehensively investigate and collect evidence sufficient to prove the facts of the underworld forces crimes, and the public security organs for all places involved in the case shall actively cooperate. In cases investigated together or for which public security organs have designated jurisdiction, where it is necessary to request approval of arrest, or transfer for review for prosecution or indictment, the people's procuratorate and people's court for the regions in which that public security organs that opened the case and investigated it are to accept it:

  3. Where public security organs designate a lower level public security organ to handle cases of underworld forces using information networks to perpetrate crimes, they shall concurrently send a copy to people's procuratorate and people's court at the same level. Where people's procuratorates find that it is necessary to designate trial jurisdiction, they shall negotiate with the people's court of the same level to handle matters related to the designation of jurisdiction.
  4.  This Opinion takes effect on October 21, 2019.
 中文版转自:http://www.court.gov.cn/fabu-xiangqing-192221.html
英文版转自:https://www.chinalawtranslate.com/en/%e5%85%b3%e4%ba%8e%e5%8a%9e%e7%90%86%e9%9d%9e%e6%b3%95%e5%88%a9%e7%94%a8%e4%bf%a1%e6%81%af%e7%bd%91%e7%bb%9c%e3%80%81%e5%b8%ae%e5%8a%a9%e4%bf%a1%e6%81%af%e7%bd%91%e7%bb%9c%e7%8a%af%e7%bd%aa%e6%b4%bb/

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